What is String Theory ?

String theory is a mathematical theory that tries to clarify certain phenomena which isn't currently explainable under the quality model of Q-Physics.

The Basics of String Theory
At its core, string theory uses a model of one-dimensional strings in situ of the particles of Q-Physics. These strings, the scale of the Planck length (10-35 m), vibrate at specific resonant frequencies. Some recent versions of string theory have predicted that the strings could have a extended length, up to just about a millimeter in size, which might mean they're within the realm that experiments could detect them. The formulas that result from string theory predict quite four dimensions (10 or 11 within the most typical variants, though one version requires 26 dimensions), but the additional dimensions are "curled up" within the Planck length.

In addition to the strings, string theory contains another sort of fundamental object called a brane, which may have more dimensions. In some "braneworld scenarios," our universe is really "stuck" inside a 3-dimensional brane (called a 3-brane).

String theory was initially developed within the 1970s in an attempt to elucidate some inconsistencies with the energy behavior of hadrons and other fundamental particles of physics.

As with much of physics , the mathematics that apply to string theory can't be uniquely solved. Physicists must apply perturbation theory to get a series of approximated solutions. Such solutions, of course, include assumptions which can or might not be true.

The driving behind this work is that it will end during a "theory of everything," including  solution to the matter of quantum gravity, and to reconcile physics with general theory of relativity , thus reconciling the elemental forces of physics.

Variants of String Theory
The original string theory focused on boson particles.

Superstring theory (short for "supersymmetric string theory") incorporates bosons with another particle, fermions, also as supersymmetry to model gravity. There are five independent superstring theories:

  • Type 1
  • Type IIA
  • Type IIB
  • Type HO
  • Type HE
  • M-Theory: A superstring theory, proposed in 1995, which attempts to consolidate the sort I, Type IIA, Type IIB, Type HO, and sort HE models as variants of an equivalent fundamental physical model.

One consequence of  research in string theory is the belief that there is an many number of possible theories that might be constructed, leading some to question whether this approach will ever actually develop the "theory of everything" that a lot of researchers originally hoped. Instead, many researchers have adopted a view that they're describing a huge string theory landscape of possible theoretical structures, many of which don't actually describe our universe.

Research in String Theory
At present, string theory has not successfully made any prediction which isn't also explained through an alternate theory. It is neither specifically proven nor falsified, though it's mathematical features which provides it great appeal to several physicists.

A number of proposed experiments have likelihood of displaying "string effects." The energy required for several such experiments isn't currently obtainable, although some are within the realm of possibility within the near future, like possible observations from black holes.

Only time will tell if string theory are going to be ready to take a dominant place in science, beyond inspiring the hearts and minds of the many physicists.

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